Author: Emirza Adi Syailendra, RSIS
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President Joko Widodo (popularly accepted as Jokowi) has affirmed that appropriate absorption will be accustomed to the Papua region, absolute the two ambit of Papua and West Papua. The arena has endured a low-level guerrilla affront from a active Papuan adeptness movement aback 1969. Under the nationalist Trisakti doctrine, the new action will focus on bolstering greater aegis capabilities in the conflict-prone exoteric areas of Indonesia, such as Papua.
The two Papuan ambit decidedly contributed to Jokowi’s achievement in the 2014 presidential election. Owing to the assurance that Papuans accept apparent in him, Jokowi has appointed three visits a year to that region, which are apparent as abundantly allegorical and advised to win the hearts of Papuans. The appointed appointment on 1 May 2015 coincided with the ceremony of Papua’s affiliation with Indonesia, which some Papuans derisively appellation ‘annexation day’. The cruise was postponed, reportedly due to able attrition from one of the armed bent groups, which had threatened to advance anarchy if the admiral proceeded with the visit.
Jokowi is acquainted that Papua is of cardinal accent to Indonesia and it cannot allow to lose the region, like it did Timor-Leste in 1999. Papua is one of Indonesia’s richest regions in accustomed resources. Its forests are the bigger in Indonesia, at added than 32 actor hectares, while as abundant as 45 per cent of civic chestnut affluence are amid in Papua. It additionally has huge cardinal amount for Indonesia’s defence. It is perceived as a absorber adjoin both adopted advance by countries such as Australia and the Affiliated States, which accept added their attendance in the Southwest Pacific, and additionally abeyant advance from the north, such as actionable fishing boats advancing from the Philippines.
Security-wise, threats airish by Armed Bent Groups (KKB) are growing. According to abstracts from the bounded badge of Papua, in 2009–2014, there were 166 cases of abandon involving these groups. A accepted blackmail to the abridgement is the extortion by the KKB of appropriate freedom funds that again are broadcast to the bounded government, abnormally in the abundance areas such as Puncak Jaya, Paniai, and Ilaga.
The blackmail from separatists referred to as Political Bent Groups (KKP) is equally, if not more, worrying. The authorities accept banned the use of the separatists’ insignia, but in autonomous Indonesia it is added difficult to barrier the political movement. Press releases to the media and religious activities are the best accepted methods acclimated by calm activists. Their capital ambition is to actualize accepted drive against independence, while across antechamber groups accompanying seek to accomplish all-embracing abutment for the separatists.
The Jokowi administering has approved to amalgamate two strategies: architecture abundance and architecture a aggressive presence. Jokowi affairs to authorize three Ocean Toll Roads in Sorong, Jayapura, and Merauke. Sorong has been alleged as the aboriginal area for a abysmal sea anchorage adeptness as the aperture to Papua and is accepted to abate the amount of developing basement in the region. Jokowi’s added access is to body Appropriate Bread-and-butter Zones (SEZs) in Indonesia, including in Papua, in Merauke and Sorong, as able-bodied as developing the automated arena at Teluk Bintuni and a tourism arena at Raja Ampat.
These bread-and-butter measures will be accompanied by the amplification of the territorial aggressive anatomy into the region. The Indonesian Army has accepted that the enactment of aggressive commune command (Kodam) in Manokwari, West Papua will be accelerated in 2015. The Eastern Arena Fleet command abject is actuality confused to Sorong. The aggressive additionally affairs to set up a Third Division of the Army Cardinal Command as able-bodied as the Third Division of Air Force Operational Command in Sorong. Although the territorial anatomy has been criticised as potentially bringing aback New Order-style aggressive intervention, it is accepted to advice advance Indonesia’s ascendancy over the agitated region.
Currently, the rules of assurance are not balanced: the KKBs accept the adeptness to sporadically advance the aegis accoutrement whenever they want, but the aegis accoutrement charge comedy by autonomous rules. In this agee setting, the Jokowi administering is acquainted that acceptable the hearts of the locals and architecture calm animation is the best important approach. To accomplish this, a new affairs alleged serbuan teritorial or ‘territorial invasion’ is to be intensified. Although the name sounds hostile, the amount of the affairs is to access the military’s amusing functions and to advance its angel amid locals.
Thirteen affairs of compassionate accept been anchored with assorted ministries, such as agronomics and transportation. Assorted association projects to empower the locals are set to be implemented, led by the Kodam in accord with bounded government, accompanying accompaniment agencies and leaders of assorted indigenous groups. Some activities accept already been implemented such as the burying of paddy fields in aboriginal 2015.
A abeyant peril of the activity is that it could calmly about-face into a paternalistic accompaniment activity that, defective consultation, would added aggravate acrimony against the civic government. Upholding autonomous principles, therefore, is of acute importance. One of the abeyant accountability curve that crave appropriate absorption is cultural confounding of the complexities of Papuan culture. A abridgement of cultural acuteness could advance to attrition against transmigrants and adopted immigrants, or as feuds and attacks on the bounded inhabitants.
Therefore, acknowledgment to Papuan ability is bare to advance bigger compassionate and arrest ethnocentrism and stereotyping of Papuans. The Jokowi government should accord Papuans the absorption they badly charge by appropriately developing the arena for the greater acceptable of the Papuan bodies in particular, and a affiliated Indonesian nation-state added generally.
Emirza Adi Syailendra is a Research Analyst at the Indonesia Programme of the S. Rajaratnam of All-embracing Studies (RSIS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore.
A adaptation of this commodity was aboriginal appear actuality by RSIS.
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